The animal is richer and more diverse than the man. Animals such as cats, dogs, lambs, calves and birds are seen by every human being, and even humans join them.
The real game is played in childhood. The animal also has a childhood period and the real game is the puppies. The elders insist on inviting the game or even trying to add it; If they do not want it, they bite, even if they do!
It has the longest childhood period in life.
During the growth phase of children; mental, physical, psychosocial development, imagination, creative ability to develop various meanings while developing simple objects called toys is called. Get your little trucker hauling heavy farm loads with the Mega Bloks John Deere.
The child makes sense of the world by playing with toys from infancy. So the real life is easier to sleep. When you are having fun, it finds or creates your own toys depending on the world of imagination. For example, a child can turn a spacecraft into a spacecraft, a cart in his hand, in a fantasy world. Rock; It even plays the role of tree, sun, star. There are six caves, papers, airplanes or ships in the tables. He is a chef and cooks in the game, then serves him in his hands; The bridge flows in the form of water, somebody else bends. While living all of this, the child is aware of everything and knows very well what the truth is.
Children enjoy great pleasure by imitating their elders and comparing their objects with objects. They learn concepts such as sharing, waiting, and working together while playing games.
The child, who is trying to understand the world with the game, begins to learn social relations and rules. With his toys in the gaming environment, he creates a world apart from himself and learns to come from the top of his sense of responsibility and responsibility.
The date of the game and the game depends on the very old ones. Babies in excavations in old towns such as Sus, Lagash and Pompei show miniature household items from cooked land, small cars with wheels, thousands of years of playground history. People have used many objects in nature as toys, and it is considered that the first toy produced is a ball and kite.
In archaeological excavations, in the 2600s BC objects of Sumerians were found in human and animal form. In 2500 BC, in India, wheeled animal figures were found. In 1000 BC, it is known that they played with flying kites in China. In Egypt in the 2nd century BC, the headstones and marbles were known. In the same period, dolls were found in pharaonic tombs. In ancient Greece, Rome and China it is known that babies made of clay and baked, with movable arm legs were made. In the 1700s, the first wooden doll was produced in series in Germany. In the Ottoman period in the district of Eyüp, the balloon made of animal tongue, wooden top, circles, tef, soil whistle were sold.
Depending on the progress in technology, toys such as teddy bears, balls, jumping rope are still popular as the toy has undergone a serious evolution.
The toy varies greatly according to the cultures and the historical ages of nations. It is believed that most of the pieces in the museums today, which are unknown, are the toys of their era.
In ancient Greece, children were very fond of playing with animals that swayed the tail when they were pulled, or they could open and close their mouths. There were babies with arms, legs moving, painted claws. In ancient Egypt the children of flats were decorated with beads instead of hair.
The children were playing with the first people who were made from kilden and did not jump, rolling on the ground. The throwing balls were made of wool or sausage.
The history of the amusing rattles is very old. The iron ball was in ancient China. Agate, stone, marble, clay and colored glass ball were made in the Netherlands, Germany, England and USA. Even in medieval times, children loved toys, horse-headed sticks. Over time, it has four wheels and a saddle.
During the Ottoman period, Istanbul was the center of toy making. Eyup; circles, wood carvings, testimony from the ground. Dancing, singing, writing and drawing toys have been common since the 18th century.
The mechanical toy, known as the “Young Writer”, could write letters using fifty words. There were even set clown, ballerina and monkey toys. Even the birds, who spoke on the board, turned their heads to the right and left their wings. In Europe, toy houses were built in the 18th century to display wooden, elephant and silver miniature ornaments. The most beautiful ones were produced in the Netherlands.
The toy kitchens and rooms, which are located in one of these open houses, are very interesting. Especially in the toy kitchen produced in Nürnberg, there were all kinds of kitchen utensils such as plates, bowls, pots and teapots.
After the baby car used in the 18th century, a toy baby carriage was produced. Kilden, toy soldiers made of glazed stone existed centuries ago. Later, lead soldiers were made. Both the painted and unpainted lead soldiers were made in Nuremberg to celebrate the victory of Prussian King Friedrich.
The first toy weapon is the catapult made in the 10th century. There were toy guns dating from the 16th century, while building bases and underground tunnels were found in the beds of the Thames rivers in Sen and Paris in Paris. The mushroom pistol appeared in the 19th century. It is more prevalent in the West, where the kite is the mainland China and Japan. The first balloons were produced in Europe.
In the 19th century, a new kaleidoscope of mirrors reflecting the small, colored glass pieces in a symmetrical geometric pattern was found in 1816 from new discoveries in the field of science.
By the 19th century, toys made by hand or molding were produced by means of machines. Thus, a large number of cheap toys were produced.
Life-inspired toy construction has become one of the industrial branches in the 20th century with diversity and development. Until the 1900s, mechanical devices operated by springs, steam-driven mechanical toys began to be operated electrically after this date. Rail, tunnel, warning lights, electric trains, miniature electric trains with locomotives and wagons attracted everyone’s attention.
20th century. In the end, electronic toys such as spaceship and astronauts were made parallel to the developments in space.
The baby knows the outside world with its sense organs. Every object around is stimulating and instructive.
The toy plays an important role in the development of the child; age, interest and necessity, plain, elaborate, rounded corners, made of durable and harmless material, and easy to clean.
Educational toys, matching children, finding different things, combining pieces, grouping, sorting, building relationships, etc. are systematically developed toys that support cognitive, language, and self-care skills through methods.
According to the development levels of the children, toys that appeal to the hearing, touch and visual senses can be prepared during 0-3 age.
For older children, it is possible to use bingo, dominoes, pair cards, puzzles, imagination, imagination, spiritual events and objects that promote the senses, cause-effect relationship, similarity, part-whole relationship or by grouping them according to the order in which they are used, to promote language and social development, and to improve their mental ability.
In cognitive development, children develop skills such as thinking, knowing, perception, recognition, abstraction, grouping, concept development, remembering, reasoning, reasoning, attention intensification, interorganizational, problem solving, creativity. Various colors, sizes and shapes help to be aware of numerical and literary concepts.
The situation of the objects in the place, that is, there, behind, etc. concepts develop.
The child learns new words with educational toys that support language development, develops the skills of presenting a situation or event, asking questions, and responding. They learn to tell stories with visual or verbal cues given, to make new stories with picture cards. Independence improves self-confidence. He expresses his feelings while he is gaining the ability to carry on and finish a business he started. He would be happy to play games and have a granny.
Providing behavior and sensitivity in personal and environmental cleanliness issues such as toys, dressing, dressing, lacing, etc. that support self-care skills. Effective use of fingers and hand muscles supports the development of skills such as hand-eye coordination.
Japan, USA and Western Europe are the first countries in toy production.
The “State” of Plato called for a play and a fairy tale circuit between the ages of 3 and 7 in child education. Aristotle has suggested that children should not enter into teaching and working life until the age of five, and that children in this period play games that imitate what they want to be in the future.
In F. Rabelais’s work Gargantua emphasizes that the child should not be educated only with theoretical knowledge and wants to be engaged with all other games, especially gymnastics after morning class.
- Locke asks for the game to be used in order to make the lessons more efficient. He also recommends a playful and entertaining educational system to get rid of the boring theoretical teaching by emphasizing that reading in the fenelon is better done by playing the education.
Rousseau, the advocate of liberty in education, says that Emile, who leaves school in nature, must first educate her sense organs and play it. The first pedagogue was the German Protestant priest Basedow, who put the play, swimming and gymnastics activities into the school’s curriculum. Salzmann argues that those who do not know how to play games with children should not be trainers, and they set aside the day of the game as ‘Game Day’, separating them from games and gymnastics each day. Pestalozzi emphasizes that the game is an environment that binds the child to real life and reveals her life in a natural way. The Schiller game opposes energetic theories, which see it as the consumption of accumulated excess energy; the appropriateness of the game, the harmony of the tendencies, the freedom of emotions.
Fröbel, the founder of the Children’s Garden, who brings the game as an educational tool, views the game as the center of human life, and argues that the best talents in the game are created through play. Fröbel does not only offer theoretical views, but also applies to children’s gardens. Montessori, the developer of this method, has aimed to provide the child with free development with the preselected play materials in the Montessori schools which he has laid all over the world.
While Adler emphasizes that play is useful in revealing herself in character education, Decroly stopped the game for the education of problem children.
The child should not be disturbed by playing a lot or playing in the house. The game should not be cut and intervened unnecessarily. The child should not be left between the toys, but should be able to play by himself. The ground must be prepared for playing common games with other children; no distinction should be made between girls ‘and boys’ toys, and their toys should be respected.